Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.
Exposure to carbonyl compounds may cause adverse health effects. The present study examined whether working in a garage and smoking can significantly affect personal "daily" exposure to a number of important carbonyl compounds. The study was carried out on 37 subjects including 22 garage workers (9 smokers and 13 nonsmokers) and 15 nongarage workers or so-called controls (4 smokers and 11 nonsmokers). Daily exposure was estimated using 48-hour integrated measurement of breathing-zone concentrations. The measurement involved the use of a passive carbonyl sampler and high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence analysis technique. Each subject was measured for up to three measurement sessions. A wide range of breathing-zone concentrations (unit: microgram per cubic meter) was observed for each of the following carbonyls: formaldehyde (14.1-80.1); acetaldehyde (8.41-80.3); acetone (0.65-1096); acrolein (<0.14-3.71); propionaldehyde (1.08-14.6); crotonaldehyde (<0.13-2.80); benzaldehyde (1.79-9.91); and hexaldehyde (0.122-22.4). Statistical significance of smoking effects and working in a garage effects were assessed using SAS mixed models. The results show that the garage workers had significantly higher levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than the controls, and that the smokers had significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, than the nonsmokers (P<.10). Garage employment and smoking appeared to increase breathing-zone concentrations of crotonaldehyde. In general, within-subject variations were smaller than between-subject variations on 48-hour averaged breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.
Zhang, L; Chung, F-L; Boccia, L; Colosimo, S; Liu, W; Zhang, J
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