Non-malignant respiratory disease among workers in industries using styrene-A review of the evidence.
BACKGROUND: Asthma and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) cases have occurred among styrene-exposed workers. We aimed to investigate styrene as a risk factor for non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD). METHODS: From a literature review, we identified case reports and assessed cross-sectional and mortality studies for strength of evidence of positive association (i.e., strong, intermediate, suggestive, none) between styrene exposure and NMRD-related morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed 55 articles and two unpublished case reports. Ten OB cases and eight asthma cases were identified. Six (75%) asthma cases had abnormal styrene inhalation challenges. Thirteen (87%) of 15 cross-sectional studies and 12 (50%) of 24 mortality studies provided at least suggestive evidence that styrene was associated with NMRD-related morbidity or mortality. Six (66%) of nine mortality studies assessing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related mortality indicated excess mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence suggests styrene exposure is a potential risk factor for NMRD. Additional studies of styrene-exposed workers are warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:163-180, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nett, RJ; Cox-Ganser, JM; Hubbs, AF; Ruder, AM; Cummings, KJ; Huang, Y-CT; Kreiss, K
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