Relationships between membrane antigens of human leukemic cells and oncogenic RNA virus structural components.
Leukemic cells from all human chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and some acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) donors are lysed by rabbit antisera to a purified glycoprotein of Friend murine leukemia virus (FLV gp71) in a microcytotoxicity assay. These antisera are not cytotoxic to cells from patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), or to peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal donors. A goat antiserum to gradient purified FLV in addition to reacting with cells from CGL and AMML donors also reacted with cells from AML patients and some ALL donors. However, this antiserum failed to react with cells from CLL patients. Peripheral blood and bone marrow leukocytes prepared from leukemic patients in clinical remission failed to react with antisera to FLV and FLV gp71. Absorption experiments demonstrated that the antigen on CGL cells which is reacting with the antiserum to FLV gp71 is also present on normal human platelets and neutrophils. Similar absorption studies showed that the antigen on AML cells detected by the FLV antiserum is not present on normal leukocytes and platelets and appears to be related to the major internal p30 antigens of mammalian RNA tumor viruses. Another antigenic relationship between oncornaviruses and membrane antigens of human leukemia cells was shown by the ability of FLV antigens to absorb the cytotoxic reactivity of nonhuman primate antisera detecting human leukemia-associated antigens. FLV and FLV gp71 antigens were able to absorb all cytotoxic activity of monkey and chimpanzee antisera to human myeloid leukemia antigens when these antisera were tested with CGL cells. These two approaches to an analysis of cross-reactivity indicate that the antigenic determinant(s) detected by the cytotoxic reactions of the FLV gp71 antiserum with human CGL cells is different from the determinant on FLV gp71 which is responsible for the inhibition of the reactivity of simian antisera with CGL cells. Since the goat and rabbit antisera to FLV and FLV gp71 are able to distinguish AML from CGL cells by direct cytotoxicity testing and absorption, they may be valuable reagents for the serological diagnosis of myeloid leukemia. In addition, since peripheral blood cells from AML and CGL patients in clinical remission were seronegative, the antisera may be valuable as management aids. The data in this report indicates that whatever the mechanism of leukemogenesis is in man, cells from CGL and AML patients possess certain membrane antigens which cross-react with FLV structural components such as p30 and gp71.
Metzgar, RS; Mohanakumar, T; Bolognesi, DP
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