Retinal angiomatous proliferation.
Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) is a unique variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Published studies have estimated that up to 15% of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration have RAP. Clinical features frequently associated with RAP include bilateral disease, presence of pigment epithelial detachments, and reticular pseudodrusen. RAP is more frequently associated with the development of retinal pigment epithelial tears and geographic atrophy that can lead to severe vision loss. Recent advances in retinal and choroidal imaging technology have furthered our understanding of RAP. Although indocyanine green angiography remains the gold standard diagnostic tool, optical coherence tomography has improved the precision by which neovascular age-related macular degeneration with RAP lesions can be diagnosed, staged, and monitored. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Other treatment options including combination of photodynamic therapy with antiangiogenic agent intravitreal injections or corticosteroids may also achieve a reasonable therapeutic outcome; however, RAP may portend a more guarded visual prognosis than typical choroidal neovascularization because of variable treatment response and dependence on the disease stage. Future basic and clinical research is needed to clarify the pathophysiology, definition and classification, optimal treatment regimen, and long-term outcome of RAP.
Tsai, ASH; Cheung, N; Gan, ATL; Jaffe, GJ; Sivaprasad, S; Wong, TY; Cheung, CMG
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)