Differences in Phenotypes and Liver Transplantation Outcomes by Age Group in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence for a heterogeneity of phenotypes in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but differences across the age spectrum in adults with PSC have not been well characterized. AIMS: To characterize phenotypic variations and liver transplantation outcomes by age group in adults with PSC. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify waitlist registrations for primary liver transplantation in adults with PSC. Patients were split into three age groups: 18-39 (young), 40-59 (middle-aged), and ≥60 (older). Their clinical characteristics and outcomes on the waitlist and post-transplant were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 8272 adults with PSC were listed for liver transplantation during the study period, of which 28.9% were young, 52.0% were middle-aged, and 19.1% were older. The young age group had the greatest male predominance (70.0 vs. 66.2 vs. 65.1%, p = 0.001), the highest proportion of black individuals (20.0 vs. 11.0 vs. 5.5%, p < 0.001), and the most patients listed with concomitant autoimmune hepatitis (2.2 vs. 1.0 vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). Older patients experienced the greatest waitlist and post-transplant mortality. Graft survival was greatest in the middle-aged group. Young patients were most likely to experience acute rejection (31 vs. 22.8 vs. 18.0%, p < 0.001) and have graft failure due to chronic rejection or PSC recurrence (47.8 vs. 42.3 vs. 17.9%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related differences exist among adults with PSC and are associated with outcomes pre- and post-transplant. Young patients may have a more robust immune-related phenotype that is associated with poorer graft survival. Future studies are needed to further investigate these findings.
Henson, JB; Patel, YA; Wilder, JM; Zheng, J; Chow, S-C; King, LY; Muir, AJ
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