A Systematic Review of Patient- and Family-Level Inhaled Corticosteroid Adherence Interventions in Black/African Americans.
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence rates are suboptimal among adult black/African Americans. Comprehensive studies characterizing the effectiveness and the methodological approaches to the development of interventions to improve ICS adherence in adult black/African Americans have not been performed. OBJECTIVES: Conduct a systematic review of patient/family-level interventions to improve ICS adherence in adult black/African Americans. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL from inception to August 2017 for English-language US studies enrolling at least 30% black/African Americans comparing patient/family-level ICS adherence interventions with any comparator. Two investigators independently selected, extracted data from, and rated risk of bias. We collected information on intervention characteristics and outcomes, and assessed whether studies were informed by behavior theory, stakeholder engagement, or both. RESULTS: Among 1661 abstracts identified, we reviewed 230 full-text articles and identified 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 1 quasi-experimental (pre-post design) study meeting criteria. Study participants (N range, 17-333) varied in mean age (22-47 years), proportion black/African Americans studied (71%-93%), and sex (69%-82% females). RCTs evaluated problem-solving classes, self-efficacy training, technology-based motivational interviewing program, and the use of patient advocates. The RCT testing self-efficacy training was the only intervention informed by both behavior theory and stakeholder engagement. All 4 RCTs compared interventions with active control and rated as medium risk of bias. No RCTs found a statistically significant improvement in adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies assessing asthma adherence interventions focused on adult black/African-American populations. No RCTs demonstrated improved ICS adherence in participants. Future studies that are informed by behavior change theory and stakeholder engagement are needed.
Riley, IL; Murphy, B; Razouki, Z; Krishnan, JA; Apter, A; Okelo, S; Kraft, M; Feltner, C; Que, LG; Boulware, LE
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