Strategy to identify subjects with diabetes mellitus more suitable for selective echocardiographic screening: The DAVID-Berg study.
BACKGROUND: Despite the burden of pre-clinical heart failure (HF) among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, routine screening echocardiography is not currently recommended. We prospectively assessed risk prediction for HF/death of a screening strategy combining clinical data, electrocardiogram, NTproBNP, and echocardiogram, aiming to identify DM patients more suitable for selective echocardiography. METHODS: Among 4047 screened subjects aged≥55/≤80years, the DAVID-Berg Study prospectively enrolled 623 outpatients with DM, or hypertension, or known cardiovascular disease but with no HF history/symptoms. The present analysis focuses on data obtained during a longitudinal follow-up of the 219 patients with DM. RESULTS: Mean age was 68years, 61% were men, and median DM duration was 4.9years. During a median follow-up of 5.2years, 50 subjects developed HF or died. A predictive model using clinical data demonstrated moderate predictive power, which significantly improved by adding electrocardiogram (C-statistic 0.75 versus 0.70; p<0.05), but not NTproBNP (C-statistic 0.72, p=0.20). Subjects with normal clinical variables or abnormal clinical variables but normal electrocardiogram had low events rate (1.3 versus 2.4events/100-person-years, p=NS). Conversely, subjects with both clinical and electrocardiogram abnormalities (47%) carried higher risk (9.0events/100-person-years, p<0.001). The predictive power for mortality/HF development increased when echocardiography was added (13.6events/100-person-years, C-statistic 0.80, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our prospective study found that a selective echocardiographic screening strategy guided by abnormal clinical/electrocardiogram data can reliably identify DM subjects at higher risk for incident HF and death. This screening approach may hold promise in guiding HF prevention efforts among DM patients.
Gori, M; Canova, P; Calabrese, A; Cioffi, G; Trevisan, R; De Maria, R; Grosu, A; Iacovoni, A; Fontana, A; Ferrari, P; Greene, SJ; Gheorghiade, M; Parati, G; Gavazzi, A; Senni, M
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