Oral Multimodal Analgesia for Total Joint Arthroplasty.
BACKGROUND: Oral multimodal analgesia for hip and knee arthroplasty is increasingly used as part of enhanced recovery protocols designed to minimize early postoperative pain and to facilitate early discharge, while minimizing undesirable side effects related to single-agent opioid administration. METHODS: This article is a review of previously published data evaluating the use of various oral medications in the management of postoperative pain after lower extremity arthroplasty and was presented as part of a symposium at the November 2016 AAHKS Annual Meeting. RESULTS: Multimodal analgesia has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and side effects, with a positive effect on both early and longer term outcomes for hip and knee arthroplasty patients. Medications directed at multiple points on the pain cascade minimize pain by different mechanisms. Suggested dosing regimens are proposed. CONCLUSION: Oral multimodal analgesia incorporating a combination of opioid and nonopioid analgesics, selective and nonselective anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and gabapentinoids are recommended as a part of a pre-emptive approach to pain management in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty. Reduction of opioid consumption and minimization of side effects are primary outcomes, and prevention of chronic pain can positively affect long-term results.
Golladay, GJ; Balch, KR; Dalury, DF; Satpathy, J; Jiranek, WA
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