Bedside Tracheostomy on Pediatric ICU Subjects Supported by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
Tracheostomy facilitates ambulatory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to recovery or lung transplantation in patients with respiratory failure, yet data on this procedure in this population are lacking. This report describes a series of pediatric ICU patients who had a bedside tracheostomy performed while being supported on ECMO and examines the potential impact of this procedure on active rehabilitation and sedation requirements.This retrospective case series reviews all patients in the pediatric ICU who received a tracheostomy while being supported on ECMO at a single tertiary care center for the past 3 y. This descriptive report reviews the surgical procedure, anticoagulation management, adjustments to sedation, and complications.Nine subjects between January 2013 and December 2015 were identified for review. The subjects ranged in age from 7 y to 25 y. All tracheostomies were performed as bedside procedures in the pediatric ICU. All subjects but one were supported by venovenous ECMO. Surgical approaches included open tracheostomy (2 subjects, 22%), percutaneous tracheostomy (1 subject, 11%), and a hybrid approach (6 subjects, 67%). Anticoagulation was held for all subjects surrounding the procedure. Three subjects had superficial bleeding after the procedure, but only one required re-exploration of the surgical field. All subjects made substantial sedation weans within 72 h of tracheostomy. With these weans, subjects were better able to participate in rehabilitation. Five subjects (55.6%) ambulated on ECMO. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 67%, and no deaths were related to the tracheostomy procedure.Bedside tracheostomy can feasibly be performed on pediatric patients being supported with ECMO as a way to improve mobility, promote ambulation, and decrease sedation. Timing and ideal surgical approach require further study to fully maximize benefits and minimize risks.
Schwartz, SP; Bonadonna, D; Hartwig, MG; Cheifetz, IM
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