TLR7/TLR9- and B Cell Receptor-Signaling Crosstalk: Promotion of Potentially Dangerous B Cells.
Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)
B cells are capable of receptor-mediated responses to foreign antigens. Recognition of microbial-derived nucleic acid (NA) by toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 in B cells has been substantiated. Endogenous NA released from damaged or dying cells can also be immunogenic in certain contexts and can incite aberrant activation of B cells. When TLR-driven B cell receptor (BCR)-activated B cells are not properly constrained, pathologic autoantibodies are produced. It is also clear that endosomal TLR7/TLR9 can operate in conjunction with BCR. In addition to BCR signaling, a balance between TLR7 and TLR9 is pivotal in the development of B cell autoreactivity. While TLR9 is important in normal memory B cell responses through BCR, TLR9 activation has been implicated in autoantibody production. Paradoxically, TLR9 also plays known protective roles against autoimmunity by directly and indirectly inhibiting TLR7-mediated autoantibody production. Herein, we summarize literature supporting mechanisms underpinning the promotion of pathological BCR-activated B cells by TLR7 and TLR9. We focus on the literature regarding known points of TLR7/TLR9 and BCR crosstalk. Data also suggest that the degree of TLR responsiveness relies on alterations of certain intrinsic B-cell signaling molecules and is also context specific. Because allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a high NA and B cell-activating factor environment, we conclude that B cell studies of synergistic TLR-BCR signaling in human diseases like chronic graft-versus-host disease are warranted. Further understanding of the distinct molecular pathways mediating TLR-BCR synergy will lead to the development of therapeutic strategies in autoimmune disease states.
- Suthers, AN; Sarantopoulos, S
Volume / Issue
- 8 /
Start / End Page
- 775 -
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)