Percutaneous sclerotherapy for congenital venous malformations in the extremities.
Between January 1991 and January 1998, a total of 15 patients underwent direct injection sclerotherapy for painful peripheral venous malformations. Duplex ultrasonography or venography was used in all cases for the detection and localization of tortuous venous structures. Direct injection with absolute ethyl alcohol was performed in 12 patients, and Sotradecol or sodium morrhuate was used in 5 patients. Provocative lidocaine testing was used in 2 patients in whom major nerves were in proximity to the malformations. All patients underwent follow-up in the clinic with duplex examination after each sclerotherapy. Clinical symptoms of all patients improved during average follow-up of 2.5 years (range: 3 months to 6 years.) Duplex examination was useful in detecting the venous component including the size and course of veins, which were often less well seen on magnetic resonance imaging. Duplex study was helpful in follow-up after sclerotherapy in all patients. Direct injection sclerotherapy is an acceptable treatment modality for venous malformations. Complications are manageable, and regular follow-up with Duplex is helpful.
Yao, Y; Lomis, NN; Scott, SM; Yoon, HC; Miller, FJ
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