Noninvasive markers in the assessment and management of autoimmune liver diseases.
Historically, liver biopsy has been used to determine the etiology of liver disease, the degree of inflammation, the stage of liver fibrosis, and the response to treatments. In the last decade, the advent of noninvasive tests has improved the diagnosis and management of autoimmune liver diseases. For example, serum markers can identify hepatic inflammation, whereas ultrasound and MRI can diagnose liver fibrosis. Physicians now have a much larger repertoire of diagnostic tests to assess the liver parenchyma compared with liver biopsy alone. In some rare cases, noninvasive tests may provide an alternative to liver biopsy. In general, however, these noninvasive tests complement liver biopsy and provide quick, accurate, and reliable adjunctive data.
Grunwald, D; Kothari, D; Malik, R
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)