Simultaneous assessment of drug interactions with low- and high-extraction opioids: application to parecoxib effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl and alfentanil.
BACKGROUND: Parecoxib is a parenteral cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor intended for perioperative analgesia. It is an inactive prodrug hydrolyzed in vivo to the active inhibitor valdecoxib, a substrate for hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4); hence, a potential exists for metabolic interactions with other CYP3A substrates. This study determined the effects of parecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the CYP3A substrates fentanyl and alfentanil compared with the CYP3A inhibitor troleandomycin. Alfentanil is a low-extraction drug with a clearance that is highly susceptible to drug interactions; fentanyl is a high-extraction drug and, thus, is theoretically less vulnerable. We therefore also tested the hypothesis that the extraction ratio influences the consequence of altered hepatic metabolism of these opioids. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board-approved, written, informed consent was obtained, 12 22- to 40-yr-old healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. The protocol was a randomized, double-blinded, balanced, placebo-controlled, three-session (placebo, parecoxib, or troleandomycin pretreatment) crossover. Subjects received both alfentanil (15 microg/kg) and fentanyl (5 microg/kg; 15-min intravenous infusion) 1 h after placebo, parecoxib (40 mg intravenously every 12 h), or troleandomycin (every 6 h). Study sessions were separated by 7 or more days. Opioid concentrations in venous blood were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Opioid effects were determined by pupillometry, respiratory rate, and Visual Analog Scale scores. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the placebo and parecoxib treatments in alfentanil or fentanyl plasma concentration, maximum observed plasma concentration, area under the plasma time-concentration time curve, clearance, elimination half-life, or volume of distribution. However, disposition of alfentanil, and to a lesser extent fentanyl, was significantly altered by troleandomycin. Clearances were reduced to 12% (0.64 +/- 0.25 ml. kg-1. min-1) and 61% (9.35 +/- 3.07) of control (5.53 +/- 2.16 and 15.3 +/- 5.0) for alfentanil and fentanyl (P < 0.001). Pupil diameter versus time curves were similar between placebo and parecoxib treatments but were significantly different after troleandomycin. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose parecoxib does not alter fentanyl or alfentanil disposition or clinical effects and does not appear to cause significant CYP3A drug interactions. CYP3A inhibition decreases alfentanil clearance more than fentanyl clearance, confirming that the extraction ratio influences the consequence of altered hepatic drug metabolism. Modified cassette, or "cocktail," dosing is useful for assessing drug interactions in humans.
Ibrahim, AE; Feldman, J; Karim, A; Kharasch, ED
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