New insights into the mechanism of methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity and implications for anesthetic development (part 1): Identification of the nephrotoxic metabolic pathway.
BACKGROUND: Methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity results from biotransformation; inorganic fluoride is a toxic metabolite. Concern exists about potential renal toxicity from volatile anesthetic defluorination, but many anesthetics increase fluoride concentrations without consequence. Methoxyflurane is metabolized by both dechlorination to methoxydifluoroacetic acid (MDFA, which may degrade to fluoride) and O-demethylation to fluoride and dichloroacetatic acid. The metabolic pathway responsible for methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity has not, however, been identified, which was the aim of this investigation. METHODS: Experiments evaluated methoxyflurane metabolite formation and effects of enzyme induction or inhibition on methoxyflurane metabolism and toxicity. Rats pretreated with phenobarbital, barium sulfate, or nothing were anesthetized with methoxyflurane, and renal function and urine methoxyflurane metabolite excretion were assessed. Phenobarbital effects on MDFA metabolism and toxicity in vivo were also assessed. Metabolism of methoxyflurane and MDFA in microsomes from livers of pretreated rats was determined in vitro. RESULTS: Phenobarbital pretreatment increased methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity in vivo (increased diuresis and blood urea nitrogen and decreased urine osmolality) and induced in vitro hepatic microsomal methoxyflurane metabolism to inorganic fluoride (2-fold), dichloroacetatic acid (1.5-fold), and MDFA (5-fold). In contrast, phenobarbital had no influence on MDFA renal effects in vivo or MDFA metabolism in vitro or in vivo. MDFA was neither metabolized to fluoride nor nephrotoxic. Barium sulfate diminished methoxyflurane metabolism and nephrotoxicity in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Fluoride from methoxyflurane anesthesia derives from O-demethylation. Phenobarbital increases in methoxyflurane toxicity do not seem attributable to methoxyflurane dechlorination, MDFA toxicity, or MDFA metabolism to another toxic metabolite, suggesting that nephrotoxicity is attributable to methoxyflurane O-demethylation. Fluoride, one of many metabolites from O-demethylation, may be toxic and/or reflect formation of a different toxic metabolite. These results may have implications for interpreting anesthetic defluorination, volatile anesthetic use, and methods to evaluate anesthetic toxicity.
Kharasch, ED; Schroeder, JL; Liggitt, HD; Park, SB; Whittington, D; Sheffels, P
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