Amyloid-associated depression and ApoE4 allele: longitudinal follow-up for the development of Alzheimer's disease.
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-associated depression is associated with cognitive impairment cross sectionally. This follow-up study was to determine the relationship between amyloid-associated depression and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Two hundred and twenty three subjects who did not have dementia at baseline were given a repeat cognitive evaluation for incident AD. Depression was defined by having a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥ 16, and non-amyloid vs. amyloid-associated depression by having a low vs. high plasma amyloid-β peptide 40 (Aβ40)/Aβ42 ratio. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype was determined, and antidepressant usage was documented. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects developed AD (7%) after an average follow-up time of 6.2 years. While none of those with non-amyloid depression developed AD, 9% of those with amyloid-associated depression developed AD. Further, among those with amyloid-associated depression, ApoE4 carriers tended to have a higher risk of AD than ApoE4 non-carriers (40% vs. 4%, p = 0.06). In contrast, 8% of those who did not have depression at baseline developed AD, but ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers did not show a difference in the AD risk. After adjusting for age, the interaction between ApoE4 and amyloid-associated depression (β = +0.113, SE = 0.047, P = 0.02) and the interaction between ApoE4 and antidepressant use (β = +0.174, SE = 0.064, P = 0.007) were associated with the AD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid-associated depression may be prodromal depression of AD especially in the presence of ApoE4. Future studies with a larger cohort and a longer follow-up are warranted to further confirm this conclusion.
Qiu, WQ; Zhu, H; Dean, M; Liu, Z; Vu, L; Fan, G; Li, H; Mwamburi, M; Steffens, DC; Au, R
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