High prevalence of PI resistance in patients failing second-line ART in Vietnam.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: There are limited data from resource-limited settings on antiretroviral resistance mutations that develop in patients failing second-line PI ART. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional virological assessment of adults on second-line ART for ≥6 months between November 2006 and December 2011, followed by a prospective follow-up over 2 years of patients with virological failure (VF) at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Vietnam. VF was defined as HIV RNA concentrations ≥1000 copies/mL. Resistance mutations were identified by population sequencing of the pol gene and interpreted using the 2014 IAS-USA mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Logistic regression modelling was performed to identify predictors of VF. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 32 years; 81.0% were male, 95.7% were on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen and 22 (9.5%) patients had VF. Of the patients with VF, 14 (64%) carried at least one major protease mutation [median: 2 (IQR: 1-3)]; 13 (59%) had multiple protease mutations conferring intermediate- to high-level resistance to lopinavir/ritonavir. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to etravirine, rilpivirine, tipranavir and darunavir were identified in 55%, 55%, 45% and 27% of patients, respectively. Higher viral load, adherence <95% and previous indinavir use were independent predictors of VF. The 2 year outcomes of the patients maintained on lopinavir/ritonavir included: death, 7 (35%); worsening virological/immunological control, 6 (30%); and virological re-suppression, 5 (25%). Two patients were switched to raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir with good HIV control. CONCLUSIONS: High-prevalence PI resistance was associated with previous indinavir exposure. Darunavir plus an integrase inhibitor and lamivudine might be a promising third-line regimen in Vietnam.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Thao, VP; Quang, VM; Day, JN; Chinh, NT; Shikuma, CM; Farrar, J; Van Vinh Chau, N; Thwaites, GE; Dunstan, SJ; Le, T

Published Date

  • March 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 71 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 762 - 774

PubMed ID

  • 26661398

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4743698

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1460-2091

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1093/jac/dkv385


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England