Heme induces programmed necrosis on macrophages through autocrine TNF and ROS production.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Diseases that cause hemolysis or myonecrosis lead to the leakage of large amounts of heme proteins. Free heme has proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Heme induces TLR4-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), whereas heme cytotoxicity has been attributed to its ability to intercalate into cell membranes and cause oxidative stress. We show that heme caused early macrophage death characterized by the loss of plasma membrane integrity and morphologic features resembling necrosis. Heme-induced cell death required TNFR1 and TLR4/MyD88-dependent TNF production. Addition of TNF to Tlr4(-/-) or to Myd88(-/-) macrophages restored heme-induced cell death. The use of necrostatin-1, a selective inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, also known as RIPK1), or cells deficient in Rip1 or Rip3 revealed a critical role for RIP proteins in heme-induced cell death. Serum, antioxidants, iron chelation, or inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) ameliorated heme-induced oxidative burst and blocked macrophage cell death. Macrophages from heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice (Hmox1(-/-)) had increased oxidative stress and were more sensitive to heme. Taken together, these results revealed that heme induces macrophage necrosis through 2 synergistic mechanisms: TLR4/Myd88-dependent expression of TNF and TLR4-independent generation of ROS.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Fortes, GB; Alves, LS; de Oliveira, R; Dutra, FF; Rodrigues, D; Fernandez, PL; Souto-Padron, T; De Rosa, MJ; Kelliher, M; Golenbock, D; Chan, FKM; Bozza, MT

Published Date

  • March 8, 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 119 / 10

Start / End Page

  • 2368 - 2375

PubMed ID

  • 22262768

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3358230

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1528-0020

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1182/blood-2011-08-375303


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States