Defining Spino-Pelvic Alignment Thresholds: Should Operative Goals in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery Account for Age?
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of prospective, multicenter database. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine age-specific spino-pelvic parameters, to extrapolate age-specific Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) values from published Short Form (SF)-36 Physical Component Score (PCS) data, and to propose age-specific realignment thresholds for adult spinal deformity (ASD). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab classification offers a framework for defining alignment in patients with ASD. Although age-specific changes in spinal alignment and patient-reported outcomes have been established in the literature, their relationship in the setting of ASD operative realignment has not been reported. METHODS: ASD patients who received operative or nonoperative treatment were consecutively enrolled. Patients were stratified by age, consistent with published US-normative values (Norms) of the SF-36 PCS (<35, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, >75 y old). At baseline, relationships between between radiographic spino-pelvic parameters (lumbar-pelvic mismatch [PI-LL], pelvic tilt [PT], sagittal vertical axis [SVA], and T1 pelvic angle [TPA]), age, and PCS were established using linear regression analysis; normative PCS values were then used to establish age-specific targets. Correlation analysis with ODI and PCS was used to determine age-specific ideal alignment. RESULTS: Baseline analysis included 773 patients (53.7 y old, 54% operative, 83% female). There was a strong correlation between ODI and PCS (r = 0.814, P < 0.001), allowing for the extrapolation of US-normative ODI by age group. Linear regression analysis (all with r > 0.510, P < 0.001) combined with US-normative PCS values demonstrated that ideal spino-pelvic values increased with age, ranging from PT = 10.9 degrees, PI-LL = -10.5 degrees, and SVA = 4.1 mm for patients under 35 years to PT = 28.5 degrees, PI-LL = 16.7 degrees, and SVA = 78.1 mm for patients over 75 years. Clinically, older patients had greater compensation, more degenerative loss of lordosis, and were more pitched forward. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that sagittal spino-pelvic alignment varies with age. Thus, operative realignment targets should account for age, with younger patients requiring more rigorous alignment objectives.
Lafage, R; Schwab, F; Challier, V; Henry, JK; Gum, J; Smith, J; Hostin, R; Shaffrey, C; Kim, HJ; Ames, C; Scheer, J; Klineberg, E; Bess, S; Burton, D; Lafage, V; International Spine Study Group,
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