Post-surgical infections and perioperative antibiotics usage in pediatric genitourinary procedures.
BACKGROUND: Post-surgical infections (PSIs) are a source of preventable perioperative morbidity. No guidelines exist for the use of perioperative antibiotics in pediatric urologic procedures. OBJECTIVE: This study reports the rate of PSIs in non-endoscopic pediatric genitourinary procedures at our institution. Secondary aims evaluate the association of PSI with other perioperative variables, including wound class (WC) and perioperative antibiotic administration. STUDY DESIGN: Data from consecutive non-endoscopic pediatric urologic procedures performed between August 2011 and April 2014 were examined retrospectively. The primary outcome was the rate of PSIs. PSIs were classified as superficial skin (SS) and deep/organ site (D/OS) according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, and urinary tract infection (UTI). PSIs were further stratified by WC1 and WC2 and perioperative antibiotic usage. A relative risk and chi-square analysis compared PSI rates between WC1 and WC2 procedures. RESULTS: A total of 1185 unique patients with 1384 surgical sites were reviewed; 1192 surgical sites had follow-up for inclusion into the study. Ten total PSIs were identified, for an overall infection rate of 0.83%. Of these, six were SS, one was D/OS, and three were UTIs. The PSI rate for WC1 (885 sites) and WC2 (307 sites) procedures was 0.34% and 2.28%, respectively, p < 0.01. Relative risk of infection in WC2 procedures was 6.7 (CI 1.75-25.85, p = 0.0055). The rate of infections in WC1 procedures was similar between those receiving and not receiving perioperative antibiotics (0.35% vs. 0.33%). All WC2 procedures received antibiotics. DISCUSSION: Post-surgical infections are associated with significant perioperative morbidity. In some studies, PSI can double hospital costs, and contribute to hospital length of stay, admission to intensive care units, and impact patient mortality. Our study demonstrates that the rate of PSI in WC1 operations is low, irrespective of whether the patient received perioperative antibiotics (0.35%) or no antibiotics (0.33%). WC2 operations were the larger source of morbidity with an infection rate of 2.28% and a 6.7 fold higher increase in relative risk. CONCLUSIONS: WC1 procedures have a rate of infection around 0.3%, which is independent of the use of perioperative antibiotics. WC2 procedures have a higher rate of infection, with a relative risk of 6.7 for the development of PSI, and should be the target of guidelines for periprocedural prophylaxis.
Ellett, J; Prasad, MM; Purves, JT; Stec, AA
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