Low-volume muscle endurance training prevents decrease in muscle oxidative and endurance function during 21-day forearm immobilization.

Journal Article


To examine the effects of low-volume muscle endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, endurance and strength of the forearm muscle during 21-day forearm immobilization (IMM-21d).


The non-dominant arm (n = 15) was immobilized for 21 days with a cast and assigned to an immobilization-only group (Imm-group; n = 7) or an immobilization with training group (Imm+Tr-group; n = 8). Training comprised dynamic handgrip exercise at 30% of pre-intervention maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at 1 Hz until exhaustion, twice a week during the immobilization period. The duration of each exercise session was 51.7 +/- 3.4 s (mean +/- SE). Muscle oxidative capacity was evaluated by the time constant for phosphocreatine recovery (tau(off)PCr) after a submaximal handgrip exercise using (31)phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An endurance test was performed at 30% of pre-intervention MVC, at 1 Hz, until exhaustion.


tau(off)PCr was significantly prolonged in the Imm-group after 21 days (42.0 +/- 2.8 and 64.2 +/- 5.1 s, pre- and post-intervention respectively; P < 0.01) but did not change for the Imm+Tr-group (50.3 +/- 3.0 and 48.8 +/- 5.0 s, ns). Endurance decreased significantly for the Imm-group (55.1 +/- 5.1 and 44.7 +/- 4.6 s, P < 0.05) but did not change for the Imm+Tr-group (47.9 +/- 3.0 and 51.7 +/- 4.0 s, ns). MVC decreased similarly in both groups (P < 0.01).


Twice-weekly muscle endurance training sessions, each lasting approx. 50 s, effectively prevented a decrease in muscle oxidative capacity and endurance; however, there was no effect on MVC decline with IMM-21d.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Homma, T; Hamaoka, T; Murase, N; Osada, T; Murakami, M; Kurosawa, Y; Kitahara, A; Ichimura, S; Yashiro, K; Katsumura, T

Published Date

  • December 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 197 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 313 - 320

PubMed ID

  • 19438844

Pubmed Central ID

  • 19438844

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1748-1716

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1748-1708

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2009.02003.x


  • eng