Effect of Multi Drug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) Inhibition on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ciprofloxacin in Normal and Rats with LPS-Induced Inflammation.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection and inflammation are known to cause wide variability in disposition of drugs through modulation of drug transporters. However, the effects of inhibition of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are poorly understood in normal and inflamed conditions. We hypothesized that inflammation alters the pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin; and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic indices, such as ratio of peak plasma concentration to minimum inhibitory concentration (C max/MIC) and ratio of area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) of ciprofloxacin will be improved with the co-administration of a MRP4 inhibitor, dipyridamole, in inflammatory conditions. METHODS: In this study, the role of MRP4 on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin was investigated by the co-administration of dipyridamole in rats with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ciprofloxacin were calculated by non-compartmental approach. MIC of ciprofloxacin was determined using broth microdilution technique. RESULTS: Induction of inflammation in rats resulted in marked reduction in C max and AUC; and an increase in the volume of distribution (V d/F) and clearance (Cl/F) of ciprofloxacin, compared to normal rats. Co-administration of dipyridamole with ciprofloxacin in inflamed rats resulted in a threefold increase in AUC, a twofold decrease in V d/F and a threefold decrease in Cl/F of ciprofloxacin with significantly prolonged half-life compared to inflamed rats who received ciprofloxacin alone. Co-administration of dipyridamole enhanced AUC/MIC values of ciprofloxacin in both normal and inflamed rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MRP4 inhibition increases the systemic exposure of ciprofloxacin in both normal and inflammatory conditions.
Prasad, VGNV; Achanta, S; Tammineni, YR; Alla, GR; Thirtham, MR; Rao, GS
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