Comparison of Clinical Care and In-Hospital Outcomes of Asian American and White Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.
Importance: Although overall stroke incidence and mortality in the United States is improving, little is known about the characteristics and clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke in Asian American individuals. Objective: To compare the characteristics, care, and outcomes of Asian American and white patients with acute ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, Participants: Retrospective analysis of Asian American and white patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke to hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program between April 1, 2004, and July 31, 2016. The GWTG-Stroke database is a prospectively collected stroke quality improvement registry sponsored by the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association of Asian American race/ethnicity, clinical outcomes, and quality measures. Results: The study population of 1 772 299 patients (mean [SD] age, 72.4 [14.2] years; 51.3% female) consisted of 64 337 Asian American patients (3.6%) and 1 707 962 white patients (96.4%) admitted to 2171 GWTG-Stroke hospitals with acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for patient and hospital variables, Asian American patients were seen with greater stroke severity compared with white patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥16) (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.30-1.40; P < .001), manifested higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; P < .001), had longer length of stay (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14-1.20; P < .001), and were less likely to ambulate independently at discharge (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.90; P < .001). Although Asian American patients had fewer intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) administrations than white patients (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .003), they had more symptomatic hemorrhage after tPA (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.55; P < .001) and overall post-tPA complications (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.46; P < .001). Asian American patients had better quality measure adherence overall than white patients, including rehabilitation (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.18-1.36; P < .001), door to tPA within 60 minutes (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; P < .001), and intensive statin therapy (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10-1.18; P < .001). After adjustment for stroke severity, Asian American patients had lower in-hospital mortality than white patients (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99; P = .008). Conclusions and Relevance: Asian American patients manifested more severe ischemic strokes, were less likely to receive IV tPA, and had worse functional outcomes than white patients. These findings warrant additional research toward improving clinical outcomes for Asian American patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Song, S; Liang, L; Fonarow, GC; Smith, EE; Bhatt, DL; Matsouaka, RA; Xian, Y; Schwamm, LH; Saver, JL
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