Evaluation and Active Treatment versus Active Surveillance of Localized Prostate Cancer in Renal Transplant Patients in the Era of Low and Very Low Risk Prostate Cancer.
PURPOSE: Current trends in renal transplantation, such as improved allograft/recipient survival and expanded organ transplantation eligibility criteria in older recipients, are concomitant with increasingly detected low risk prostate cancer in candidates for or recipients of renal transplantation. We reviewed the evidence regarding prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and management in renal transplant candidates and recipients. We focused on published reports of prostate cancer incidence and diagnosis in patients with end stage renal disease, pretransplant screening recommendations, and recommendations regarding waiting time between treatment and active wait listing after the prostate cancer diagnosis in renal transplant candidates. In addition, we examined the natural history of prostate cancer development after renal transplantation in the setting of standard immunosuppression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the English language literature using search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen, prostate cancer treatment and active surveillance in various combinations. RESULTS: Prostate cancer screening is still widely done in almost all patients with end stage renal disease before and after transplantation. Active treatment of any patients with prostate cancer and a 5-year waiting period before transplantation can negatively affect the collective pool of participants and the overall survival of patients on dialysis. Several groups have proposed a shorter waiting time to kidney transplantation in patients with low risk prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: There are no standardized guidelines for screening and management of prostate cancer before and after transplantation. In the era of low risk prostate cancer end stage renal disease is a significant competing mortality risk factor. The role of active surveillance in these complex cases has yet to be well investigated. Further studies and nomograms are urged to integrate risk stratified screening and treatment protocols before and after renal transplantation.
Aminsharifi, A; Simon, R; Polascik, TJ; Robertson, CN; Sudan, DL; Collins, BH; Moul, JW
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