Three-dimensionally-printed anthropomorphic physical phantom for mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with custom materials, lesions, and uniform quality control region.
Anthropomorphic breast phantoms mimic patient anatomy in order to evaluate clinical mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis system performance. Our goal is to create a modular phantom with an anthropomorphic region to allow for improved lesion and calcification detection as well as a uniform region to evaluate standard quality control (QC) metrics. Previous versions of this phantom used commercial photopolymer inkjet three-dimensional printers to recreate breast anatomy using four surfaces that were fabricated with commercial materials spanning only a limited breast density range of 36% to 64%. We use modified printers to create voxelized, dithered breast phantoms with continuous gradations between glandular and adipose tissues. Moreover, the new phantom replicates the low-end density (representing adipose tissue) using third party material, Jf Flexible, and increases the high-end density to the density of glandular tissue and beyond by either doping Jf Flexible with salts and nanoparticles or using a new commercial resin, VeroPureWhite. An insert design is utilized to add masses, calcifications, and iodinated objects into the phantom for increased utility. The uniform chest wall region provides a space for traditional QC objects such as line pair patterns for measuring resolution and scale bars for measuring printer linearity. Incorporating these distinct design modules enables us to create an improved, complete breast phantom to better evaluate clinical mammography systems for lesion and calcification detection and standard QC performance evaluation.
Rossman, AH; Catenacci, M; Zhao, C; Sikaria, D; Knudsen, JE; Dawes, D; Gehm, ME; Samei, E; Wiley, BJ; Lo, JY
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