An Update of Eye Shape and Myopia.
Myopia is one of the most prevalent eye diseases, and its advanced form, high myopia, is a leading cause of subsequent pathologic myopia, which in turn results in an increased risk of retinal diseases. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia is 28.3% and 4.0% of the global population, respectively, and these numbers are estimated to increase to 49.8% for myopia 9.8% for high myopia by 2050, thus making myopia a severe global socioeconomic problem. The eye shape has been receiving increasing attention as a possible biomarker for myopia. Among several modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently considered to be the best to measure the 3-dimensional eye shape, and one study using MRI revealed that myopic eyes became much larger in all 3 dimensions, but more so in length (0.35 mm/D) than in height (0.19 mm/D) or in width (0.10 mm/D), which fitted in global and axial elongation models. Another recent study reported that emmetropic retinas were oblate but oblateness decreased with myopia progression. According to a study to evaluate eye shapes in high myopia, although all emmetropic eyes had a blunt shape, almost half of the high myopic eyes had a pointed shape. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that abnormal eye shape changes can cause not only simple myopia but also various ocular complications through biomechanical stretching. In this review, we highlight recent findings on eye shape changes in myopic eyes and abnormal eye shapes in pathologic myopia.
Matsumura, S; Kuo, AN; Saw, S-M
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