Liver fibrosis during clinical ascertainment of glycogen storage disease type III: a need for improved and systematic monitoring.
PURPOSE: In glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III), liver aminotransferases tend to normalize with age giving an impression that hepatic manifestations improve with age. However, despite dietary treatment, long-term liver complications emerge. We present a GSD III liver natural history study in children to better understand changes in hepatic parameters with age. METHODS: We reviewed clinical, biochemical, histological, and radiological data in pediatric patients with GSD III, and performed a literature review of GSD III hepatic findings. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients (median age 12.5 years, range 2-22) with GSD IIIa (n = 23) and IIIb (n = 3) were enrolled in the study. Six of seven pediatric patients showed severe fibrosis on liver biopsy (median [range] age: 1.25 [0.75-7] years). Markers of liver injury (aminotransferases), dysfunction (cholesterol, triglycerides), and glycogen storage (glucose tetrasaccharide, Glc4) were elevated at an early age, and decreased significantly thereafter (p < 0.001). Creatine phosphokinase was also elevated with no significant correlation with age (p = 0.4). CONCLUSION: Liver fibrosis can occur at an early age, and may explain the decrease in aminotransferases and Glc4 with age. Our data outlines the need for systematic follow-up and specific biochemical and radiological tools to monitor the silent course of the liver disease process.
Halaby, CA; Young, SP; Austin, S; Stefanescu, E; Bali, D; Clinton, LK; Smith, B; Pendyal, S; Upadia, J; Schooler, GR; Mavis, AM; Kishnani, PS
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