Place of death by region and urbanization among gynecologic cancer patients: 2006-2016.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between US region of residence and urbanization and the place of death among women with gynecologic malignancies in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using publicly available death certificate data from the National Center for Health Statistics. All gynecologic cancer deaths were included from 2006 to 2016. Comparisons among categories were performed with a two-tailed chi-square test, with p-values <0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2016, 328,026 women died from gynecologic malignancies in the US. Of these deaths, 40.1% (n = 134,333) occurred in the patient's home, 24.9%(n = 81,823) in the hospital, and 11.3% (37,188) in an inpatient hospice facility. Place of death varied by geographic region. The Northeast had the largest percentage of gynecologic cancer patients (31.3%) die as a hospital inpatient. The West had the highest percentage of deaths (49.3%) at home. Deaths in a hospice facility were the highest (14.1%) in the South. Place of death varied by urbanization; patients residing in large central metro or rural counties were the most likely to die during hospital admission (28.7% and 27.1%, respectively). Patients living in medium-sized metro areas were the least likely to die in hospitals (21.8%) and most likely to die in a hospice facility (14.3%). All comparisons were significant by study definition. CONCLUSION: The place of death for patients with gynecologic malignancies varies by US region and urbanization. These disparities are multifactorial in nature, likely influenced by both sociodemographic factors and regional resource availability. In this study, however, rural and central metro areas are identified as regions that may benefit from further hospice development and advocacy.
Puechl, AM; Chino, F; Havrilesky, LJ; Davidson, BA; Chino, JP
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