Smoking abstinence effects on emotion dysregulation in adult cigarette smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is robustly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known about psychological mechanisms accounting for this comorbid relationship. This study examined difficulties in emotion regulation, or emotion dysregulation, among adult cigarette smokers with and without ADHD. Emotion dysregulation was predicted to be higher in an ADHD group at screening and after 24 -h smoking abstinence compared to a non-ADHD group. METHODS: Cigarette smokers with (n = 19) and without (n = 20) ADHD completed a screening visit, baseline visit, and two experimental visits: smoking as usual (i.e., smoking satiated) and after biochemically-verified 24 -h smoking abstinence (i.e., smoking abstinent). Three emotion dysregulation rating scales (two self-report and one clinician rated) were administered at the screening visit and experimental sessions. Experimental sessions also included two emotion dysregulation behavioral tasks. RESULTS: The ADHD group scored higher on all three rating scales at screening (p's < .001). For experimental sessions, group (ADHD, non-ADHD) x condition (smoking satiated, smoking abstinence) interactions were not significant across measures. However, group main effects emerged indicating higher emotion dysregulation in the ADHD group across all measures (p's < .001). Main effects also emerged for experimental condition, but were more mixed across emotion dysregulation measures. CONCLUSIONS: Emotion dysregulation was higher among adult smokers with ADHD and during smoking abstinence across diagnostic groups, suggesting that this malleable psychological mechanism plays a role in smoking both for those with and without ADHD-such findings can inform treatment and prevention efforts.
Mitchell, JT; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC; Brown, RA; Lejuez, CW; Kollins, SH
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