Sex-Based Differences in Presentation, Treatment, and Complications Among Older Adults Hospitalized for Acute Myocardial Infarction: The SILVER-AMI Study.
BACKGROUND: Studies of sex-based differences in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have yielded mixed results. We, therefore, sought to evaluate sex-based differences in presentation characteristics, treatments, functional impairments, and in-hospital complications in a large, well-characterized population of older adults (≥75 years) hospitalized with AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from participants enrolled in SILVER-AMI (Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk Factors in Older Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction)-a prospective observational study consisting of 3041 older patients (44% women) hospitalized for AMI. Participants were stratified by AMI subtype (ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-STEMI [NSTEMI]) and subsequently evaluated for sex-based differences in clinical presentation, functional impairments, management, and in-hospital complications. Among the study sample, women were slightly older than men (NSTEMI: 82.1 versus 81.3, P<0.001; STEMI: 82.2 versus 80.6, P<0.001) and had lower rates of prior coronary disease. Women in the NSTEMI subgroup presented less frequently with chest pain as their primary symptom. Age-associated functional impairments at baseline were more common in women in both AMI subgroups (cognitive impairment, NSTEMI: 20.6% versus 14.3%, P<0.001; STEMI: 20.6% versus 12.4%, P=0.001; activities of daily living disability, NSTEMI: 19.7% versus 11.4%, P<0.001; STEMI: 14.8% versus 6.4%, P<0.001; impaired functional mobility, NSTEMI: 44.5% versus 30.7%, P<0.001; STEMI: 39.4% versus 22.0%, P<0.001). Women with AMI had lower rates of obstructive coronary disease (NSTEMI: P<0.001; STEMI: P=0.02), driven by lower rates of 3-vessel or left main disease than men (STEMI: 38.8% versus 58.7%; STEMI: 24.3% versus 32.1%), and underwent revascularization less commonly (NSTEMI: 55.6% versus 63.6%, P<0.001; STEMI: 87.3% versus 93.3%, P=0.01). Rates of bleeding were higher among women with STEMI (26.2% versus 15.6%, P<0.001) but not NSTEMI (17.8% versus 15.7%, P=0.21). Women had a higher frequency of bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention with both NSTEMI (11.0% versus 7.8%, P=0.04) and STEMI (22.6% versus 14.8%, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults hospitalized with AMI, women had a higher prevalence of age-related functional impairments and, among the STEMI subgroup, a higher incidence of overall bleeding events, which was driven by higher rates of nonmajor bleeding events and bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention. These differences may have important implications for in-hospital and posthospitalization needs.
Nanna, MG; Hajduk, AM; Krumholz, HM; Murphy, TE; Dreyer, RP; Alexander, KP; Geda, M; Tsang, S; Welty, FK; Safdar, B; Lakshminarayan, DK; Chaudhry, SI; Dodson, JA
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