Ether lipid metabolism by AADACL1 regulates platelet function and thrombosis.
We previously reported the discovery of a novel lipid deacetylase in platelets, arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1/NCEH1), and that its inhibition impairs agonist-induced platelet aggregation, Rap1 GTP loading, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and ex vivo thrombus growth. However, precise mechanisms by which AADACL1 impacts platelet signaling and function in vivo are currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AADACL1 regulates the accumulation of ether lipids that impact PKC signaling networks crucial for platelet activation in vitro and in vivo. Human platelets treated with the AADACL1 inhibitor JW480 or the AADACL1 substrate 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (HAG) exhibited decreased platelet aggregation, granule secretion, Ca2+ flux, and PKC phosphorylation. Decreased aggregation and secretion were rescued by exogenous adenosine 5'-diphosphate, indicating that AADACL1 likely functions to induce dense granule secretion. Experiments with P2Y12-/- and CalDAG GEFI-/- mice revealed that the P2Y12 pathway is the predominate target of HAG-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation. HAG itself displayed weak agonist properties and likely mediates its inhibitory effects via conversion to a phosphorylated metabolite, HAGP, which directly interacted with the C1a domains of 2 distinct PKC isoforms and blocked PKC kinase activity in vitro. Finally, AADACL1 inhibition in rats reduced platelet aggregation, protected against FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis, and delayed tail bleeding time. In summary, our data support a model whereby AADACL1 inhibition shifts the platelet ether lipidome to an inhibitory axis of HAGP accumulation that impairs PKC activation, granule secretion, and recruitment of platelets to sites of vascular damage.
Holly, SP; Gera, N; Wang, P; Wilson, A; Guan, Z; Lin, L; Cooley, B; Alfar, HR; Patil, RG; Piatt, R; Leisner, TM; Bergmeier, W; Majumder, R; Parise, LV
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