Opponent regulation of action performance and timing by striatonigral and striatopallidal pathways.
The basal ganglia have been implicated in action selection and timing, but the relative contributions of the striatonigral (direct) and striatopallidal (indirect) pathways to these functions remain unclear. We investigated the effects of optogenetic stimulation of D1+ (direct) and A2A+ (indirect) neurons in the ventrolateral striatum in head-fixed mice on a fixed time reinforcement schedule. Direct pathway stimulation initiates licking, whereas indirect pathway stimulation suppresses licking and results in rebound licking after stimulation. Moreover, direct and indirect pathways also play distinct roles in timing. Direct pathway stimulation produced a resetting of the internal timing process, whereas indirect pathway stimulation transiently paused timing, and proportionally delayed the next bout of licking. Our results provide evidence for the continuous and opposing contributions of the direct and indirect pathways in the production and timing of reward-guided behavior.
Bakhurin, KI; Li, X; Friedman, AD; Lusk, NA; Watson, GD; Kim, N; Yin, HH
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