Serum IgG Levels and Risk of COPD Hospitalization: A Pooled Meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: Hypogammaglobulinemia (serum IgG levels < 7.0 g/L) has been associated with increased risk of COPD exacerbations but has not yet been shown to predict hospitalizations. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine the relationship between hypogammaglobulinemia and the risk of hospitalization in patients with COPD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum IgG levels were measured on baseline samples from four COPD cohorts (n = 2,259): Azithromycin for Prevention of AECOPD (MACRO, n = 976); Simvastatin in the Prevention of AECOPD (STATCOPE, n = 653), Long-Term Oxygen Treatment Trial (LOTT, n = 354), and COPD Activity: Serotonin Transporter, Cytokines and Depression (CASCADE, n = 276). IgG levels were determined by immunonephelometry (MACRO; STATCOPE) or mass spectrometry (LOTT; CASCADE). The effect of hypogammaglobulinemia on COPD hospitalization risk was evaluated using cumulative incidence functions for this outcome and deaths (competing risk). Fine-Gray models were performed to obtain adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios (SHR) related to IgG levels for each study and then combined using a meta-analysis. Rates of COPD hospitalizations per person-year were compared according to IgG status. RESULTS: The overall frequency of hypogammaglobulinemia was 28.4%. Higher incidence estimates of COPD hospitalizations were observed among participants with low IgG levels compared with those with normal levels (Gray's test, P < .001); pooled SHR (meta-analysis) was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.06-1.56, P = .01). Among patients with prior COPD admissions (n = 757), the pooled SHR increased to 1.58 (95% CI, 1.20-2.07, P < .01). The risk of COPD admissions, however, was similar between IgG groups in patients with no prior hospitalizations: pooled SHR = 1.15 (95% CI, 0.86-1.52, P =.34). The hypogammaglobulinemia group also showed significantly higher rates of COPD hospitalizations per person-year: 0.48 ± 2.01 vs 0.29 ± 0.83, P < .001. INTERPRETATION: Hypogammaglobulinemia is associated with a higher risk of COPD hospital admissions.
Leitao Filho, FS; Mattman, A; Schellenberg, R; Criner, GJ; Woodruff, P; Lazarus, SC; Albert, RK; Connett, J; Han, MK; Gay, SE; Martinez, FJ; Fuhlbrigge, AL; Stoller, JK; MacIntyre, NR; Casaburi, R; Diaz, P; Panos, RJ; Cooper, JA; Bailey, WC; LaFon, DC; Sciurba, FC; Kanner, RE; Yusen, RD; Au, DH; Pike, KC; Fan, VS; Leung, JM; Man, S-FP; Aaron, SD; Reed, RM; Sin, DD
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)