The impact of hyperglycemia and obesity on hospitalization costs and clinical outcome in general surgery patients.
(Journal Article;Multicenter Study)
BACKGROUND: The impact of obesity on clinical outcomes and hospitalization costs in general surgery patients with and without diabetes (DM) is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 2451 patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery at two university hospitals. Hyperglycemia was defined as BG ≥140 mg/dl. Overweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) between 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2). Hospital cost was calculated using cost-charge ratios from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Hospital complications included a composite of major cardiovascular events, pneumonia, bacteremia, acute kidney injury (AKI), respiratory failure, and death. RESULTS: Hyperglycemia was present in 1575 patients (74.8%). Compared to patients with normoglycemia, those with DM and non-DM with hyperglycemia had higher number of complications (8.9% vs. 35.8% vs. 30.0%, p<0.0001), longer hospital stay (5 days vs. 9 days vs. 9 days, p<0.0001), more readmissions within 30 days (9.3% vs. 18.8% vs. 17.2%, p<0.0001), and higher hospitalization costs ($20,273 vs. $79,545 vs. $72,675, p<0.0001). In contrast, compared to normal-weight subjects, overweight and obesity were not associated with increased hospitalization costs ($58,313 vs. $58,173 vs. $66,633, p=0.74) or risk of complications, except for AKI (11.9% vs. 14.8% vs. 20.5%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that DM (OR=4.4, 95% CI=2.8,7.0) or perioperative hyperglycemia (OR=4.1, 95% CI=2.7-6.2) were independently associated with increased risk of complications. CONCLUSION: Hyperglycemia but not increasing BMI, in patients with and without diabetes undergoing gastrointestinal surgery was associated with a higher number of complications and hospitalization costs.
Buehler, L; Fayfman, M; Alexopoulos, A-S; Zhao, L; Farrokhi, F; Weaver, J; Smiley-Byrd, D; Pasquel, FJ; Vellanki, P; Umpierrez, GE
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