The Impact of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Older Adult Trauma Patients With Hip Fractures.
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is frequently recommended for multimodal analgesia to reduce opioid use. We hypothesized that increased NSAID utilization will decrease opioid requirements without leading to significant complications in older adult trauma patients undergoing hip fracture repair. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional cohort study of 190,057 adult trauma patients over a 6-y period (2008-2014) in the national Premier Healthcare Database was performed. Patients aged 65 or older undergoing femur repair and hip arthroplasty following fractures due to falls were analyzed. Primary outcome was opioid use, and secondary outcomes included transfusion requirements, length of stay (LOS), and organ system dysfunction. Continuous outcomes were analyzed using mixed-effect linear regression models to assess the effect of NSAIDs on the day of surgery. Fixed effects were included for patient and hospital characteristics, comorbidities, co-treatments, and surgery. Random intercepts for each hospital were included to control for clustering. Categorical outcomes were similarly analyzed using mixed-effect logistic regression models. RESULTS: NSAIDs decreased opioids prescribed (12.01 versus 11.43 morphine milligram equivalents) (odds ratio [OR], -0.23; confidence interval [CI] = -0.41, -0.06) without overall increased bleeding (40.83% versus 43.18%; OR, 1.02; CI = 0.99, 1.05). NSAIDs were associated with reduced LOS (5.61 versus 5.96 d; CI = -0.24, -0.12), intensive care unit admissions (9.73% versus 10.59%; OR, 0.91; CI = 0.86, 0.96), and pulmonary complications (OR, 0.88; CI = 0.83, 0.93). Additionally, there was a 21% prescribing variability based solely on hospital. CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs were associated with decreased opioid requirements, hospital LOS, and intensive care unit admissions in older adult trauma patients without overall increase in bleeding. NSAIDs should be considered in multimodal pain regimens, moreover, given prescribing variability guidelines are needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, Prognostic.
Haines, KL; Fuller, M; Vaughan, JG; Krishnamoorthy, V; Raghunathan, K; Kasotakis, G; Agarwal, S; Ohnuma, T
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