Regulatory mechanisms of RIPK1 in cell death and inflammation.
Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 are key adaptors that play critical roles in inflammatory and cell death signaling. Work in recent years have shown that their activities are tightly regulated by ubiquitination, phosphorylation and proteolysis. In addition to these post-translational modifications, the expression and activities of these kinases can further be tuned by environmental changes in pH and oxygen content. Proper control of these regulatory processes is crucial for the RIP kinases to execute their functions in immune responses and tissue homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent advance in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activities of the RIP kinases. We will also discuss how the different regulatory mechanisms contribute to the functions of RIPK1 and RIPK3 in different pathophysiological settings.
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