Detection of flap tissue ischemia in a rat model: Real-time monitoring of changes in oxygenation and perfusion through injectable biosensors.
BACKGROUND: The success of surgical flaps is improved by timely correction of vascular compromise. Current monitoring methods are labor or cost intensive or have limited clinical benefit. We hypothesize that injectable oxygen sensors can identify acute vascular compromise. The purpose of this study was to use a long-term, real-time method of tissue oxygenation detection in a rat flap model with vascular manipulation. METHODS: Sensors incorporated benzo-porphyrin dye into a microporous hydrogel and were injected intradermally 1 day before flap elevation. Inspired oxygen was modulated between 100% and 12% to confirm sensor O2 sensitivity. Eight random flaps (4 cm wide, 8 cm long) were elevated. Sensor and clinical observation to temporary clamping of the flap vascular pedicle was recorded. Sodium fluorescein in saline was injected intraperitoneally on postoperative days 0, 3, and 7 with subsequent perfusion area analysis. RESULTS: Tissue oxygen tension measurements reflected the changes in inspired oxygen levels. Clinical observation of the flaps did not show any significant change in color or temperature with pedicle clamping. However, clamping of the pedicle resulted in a significant decrease in sensor tissue oxygen tension within 70 seconds. CONCLUSION: Oxygen monitoring of myocutaneous flaps is sensitive and can detect acute vascular occlusion. This technique is faster than current methods and offers a cost-effective and accurate means of monitoring surgical tissues.
Ibrahim, MM; Patel, PS; Wu, ZJ; Chien, JS; Wisniewski, NA; Mohammed, MM; Klitzman, B
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