Photoreceptor Discs: Built Like Ectosomes.
The light-sensitive outer segment organelle of the vertebrate photoreceptor cell is a modified cilium filled with hundreds of flattened 'disc' membranes that provide vast light-absorbing surfaces. The outer segment is constantly renewed with new discs added at its base every day. This continuous process is essential for photoreceptor viability. In this review, we describe recent breakthroughs in the understanding of disc morphogenesis, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for initiating disc formation from the ciliary membrane. We highlight the discoveries that this mechanism evolved from an innate ciliary process of releasing small extracellular vesicles, or ectosomes, and that both disc formation and ectosome release rely on the actin cytoskeleton.
Spencer, WJ; Lewis, TR; Pearring, JN; Arshavsky, VY
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)