Prospective Single-Arm Phase 1 and 2 Study: Ipilimumab and Nivolumab With Thoracic Radiation Therapy After Platinum Chemotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

PURPOSE: Consolidative thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that the addition of ipilimumab (IPI) and nivolumab (NIVO) after TRT would improve outcomes for patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligibility required stable disease or better after platinum doublet chemotherapy. Study therapy included consolidative TRT to 30 Gy in 10 fractions, targeting residual primary tumor and initially involved regional lymph nodes. Two weeks after TRT, patients received concurrent IPI (3 mg/kg) and NIVO (1 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by NIVO monotherapy (480 mg) every 4 weeks until progression or up to 1 year. RESULTS: The study enrolled 21 patients, with 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) of 24% (90% confidence interval [CI], 11%-40%) and a median PFS of 4.5 months (95% CI, 2.7%-4.6%). The 12-month overall survival (OS) was 48% (95% CI, 29%-64%) with a median OS of 11.7 months (95% CI, 4.7%-16.0%). Fifty-two percent of patients had ≥1 possibly related grade 3 to 4 immune-related adverse event. Grade 3 pulmonary and gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events were recorded in 19% and 24% of patients, respectively. Exploratory analysis showed increased cytotoxic T cell (CD3+CD8+) tumor infiltration was associated with favorable PFS (P = .01) and OS (P = .02). Reduction in peripheral blood CD3+CD8+ from baseline to after first dose of IPI/NIVO was associated with improved PFS (P = .02) and OS (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Consolidative IPI and NIVO after platinum-based chemotherapy and TRT demonstrated a toxicity profile consistent with the known adverse events attributable to IPI and NIVO. Although the study regimen did not significantly improve PFS, the OS was higher than historic expectations. CD3+CD8+ tumor infiltration and migration may identify patients most likely to have improved outcomes in small cell lung cancer.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Perez, BA; Kim, S; Wang, M; Karimi, AM; Powell, C; Li, J; Dilling, TJ; Chiappori, A; Latifi, K; Rose, T; Lannon, A; MacMillan, G; Saller, J; Grass, GD; Rosenberg, S; Gray, J; Haura, E; Creelan, B; Tanvetyanon, T; Saltos, A; Shafique, M; Boyle, TA; Schell, MJ; Conejo-Garcia, JR; Antonia, SJ

Published Date

  • February 1, 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 109 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 425 - 435

PubMed ID

  • 33002543

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8465780

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-355X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.09.031


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States