Identification of novel hrp-regulated genes through functional genomic analysis of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 genome.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strain DC3000 infects the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, causing disease symptoms characterized by necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis. One mechanism used by Pst DC3000 to infect host plants is the type III protein secretion system, which is thought to deliver multiple effector proteins to the plant cell. The exact number of type III effectors in Pst DC3000 or any other plant pathogenic bacterium is not known. All known type III effector genes of P. syringae are regulated by HrpS, an NtrC family protein, and the HrpL alternative sigma factor, which presumably binds to a conserved cis element (called the "hrp box") in the promoters of type III secretion-associated genes. In this study, we designed a search motif based on the promoter sequences conserved in 12 published hrp operons and putative effector genes in Pst DC3000. Seventy-three predicted genes were retrieved from the January 2001 release of the Pst DC3000 genome sequence, which had 95% genome coverage. The expression of the 73 genes was analysed by microarray and Northern blotting, revealing 24 genes/operons (including eight novel genes), the expression of which was consistently higher in hrp-inducing minimal medium than in nutrient-rich Luria-Bertani broth. Expression of all eight genes was dependent on the hrpS gene. Most were also dependent on the hrpL gene, but at least one was dependent on the hrpS gene, but not on the hrpL gene. An AvrRpt2-based type III translocation assay provides evidence that some of the hrpS-regulated novel genes encode putative effector proteins.
Zwiesler-Vollick, J; Plovanich-Jones, AE; Nomura, K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Joardar, V; Kunkel, BN; He, SY
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