Contemporary Multi-Institutional Cohort of 550 Cases of Phyllodes Tumors (2007-2017) Demonstrates a Need for More Individualized Margin Guidelines.
PURPOSE: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare breast neoplasms, which have little granular data on margins. Current guidelines recommend ≥ 1 cm margins; however, recent data suggest narrower margins are sufficient, and for benign PT, a negative margin may not be necessary. METHODS: We performed an 11-institution contemporary (2007-2017) review of PT practices. Demographics, surgical, and histopathologic data were captured. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of select covariates with local recurrence (LR). RESULTS: Of 550 PT patients, the majority underwent excisional biopsy (55.3%, n = 302/546) or lumpectomy (wide excision) (38.5%, n = 210/546). Median tumor size was 30 mm, 68.9% (n = 379) were benign, 19.6% (n = 108) borderline, and 10.5% (n = 58) malignant. Surgical margins were positive in 42% (n = 231) and negative in 57.3% (n = 311). A second operation was performed in 38.0% (n = 209) of the total cohort, including 51 patients with an initial negative margin (82.4% with < 2 mm), and 157 with an initial positive margin, with residual disease only found in six (2.9%). Notably, 32.0% (n = 74) of those with an initial positive margin did not undergo a second operation, among whom only 2.7% (n = 2) recurred. Recurrence occurred in 3.3% (n = 18) of the total cohort (n = 15 LR, n = 3 distant), at median follow-up of 36.7 months. LR (all PT grades) was not reduced with wider negative margin width (≥ 2 mm v < 2 mm: odds ratio [OR] = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.07 to 2.10; P = .27) or final margin status (positive v negative: OR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.26 to 3.52; P = .96). CONCLUSION: In current practice, many patients are managed outside of current guidelines. For the entire cohort, a wider margin width was not associated with a reduced risk of LR. We do not recommend re-excision of a negative margin for benign PT, regardless of margin width, as a progressively wider surgical margin is unlikely to reduce LR.
Rosenberger, LH; Thomas, SM; Nimbkar, SN; Hieken, TJ; Ludwig, KK; Jacobs, LK; Miller, ME; Gallagher, KK; Wong, J; Neuman, HB; Tseng, J; Hassinger, TE; King, TA; Jakub, JW
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