Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer survivors: A population-based study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and identified the predictive factors associated with PTSD symptoms in a population of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) survivors.


A random sample of 2,000 NMIBC survivors, identified through the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry, were sent postal mail survey. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple linear regression were used to examine the prevalence of PTSD and to identify the factors associated with PTSD.


A total of 376 participants were included in the analysis. The average PCL-5 score was 7.1 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.9, range: 0-66), where higher scores represent higher levels of PTSD symptoms. The prevalence of the provisional PTSD diagnosis was 5.3% or 6.9% (after adjusting for nonresponse). In addition, 28.7% of participants met criteria for at least one PTSD symptom cluster. After controlling for other variables, participants who were younger, had active disease or unsure of status, had more comorbidities, had lower social support, and had higher cognitive concerns reported significantly higher PTSD symptoms.


More than one-fourth of NMIBC survivors had PTSD symptoms. Thus, healthcare providers should assess PTSD symptoms and provide supportive care for NMIBC survivors in the survivorship phase of care.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Jung, A; Crandell, JL; Nielsen, ME; Mayer, DK; Smith, SK

Published Date

  • April 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 39 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 237.e7 - 237.e14

PubMed ID

  • 33308978

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7956138

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-2496

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1078-1439

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.11.033


  • eng