Toward a Molecular Basis of Cellular Nucleoside Transport in Humans.
Nucleosides play central roles in all facets of life, from metabolism to cellular signaling. Because of their physiochemical properties, nucleosides are lipid bilayer impermeable and thus rely on dedicated transport systems to cross biological membranes. In humans, two unrelated protein families mediate nucleoside membrane transport: the concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporter families. The objective of this review is to provide a broad outlook on the current status of nucleoside transport research. We will discuss the role played by nucleoside transporters in human health and disease, with emphasis placed on recent structural advancements that have revealed detailed molecular principles of these important cellular transport systems and exploitable pharmacological features.
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