The Utility of Novel Renal Biomarkers in Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology (CKDu): A Review.
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a globally prevalent non-communicable disease with significant mortality and morbidity. It is typically associated with diabetes and hypertension; however, over the last two decades, an emergence of CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu) has claimed thousands of lives in several tropical agricultural communities. CKDu is associated with gradual loss of renal function without initial symptoms until reaching complete kidney failure and eventually death. The most impacted are young adult males of lower socio-economic strata. Since the disease progression can be successfully attenuated through early detection, the development of superior screening and management measures is of utmost importance. In contrast to the conventional biomarkers, novel biomarkers with improved sensitivity and specificity are being discussed as promising tools for early diagnosis of the disease. This review summarizes emerging novel biomarkers used in assessing CKD and discusses the current utility and diagnostic potential of such biomarkers for CKDu screening in clinical settings of different communities impacted by CKDu. Our goal is to provide a framework for practitioners in CKDu impacted regions to consider the use of these novel biomarkers through this synthesis. The increased use of these biomarkers will not only help to validate their diagnostic power further and establish potential prognostic value but may also provide critical insights into sites and mechanisms of renal damage.
Gunasekara, TDKSC; De Silva, PMCS; Herath, C; Siribaddana, S; Siribaddana, N; Jayasumana, C; Jayasinghe, S; Cardenas-Gonzalez, M; Jayasundara, N
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