Tailoring nitric oxide release with additive manufacturing to create antimicrobial surfaces.
The current use of implantable and indwelling medical is limited due to potential microbial colonization leading to severe ailments. The aim of this work is to develop bioactive polymers that can be customized based on patient needs and help prevent bacterial infection. Potential benefits of additive manufacturing technology are integrated with the antimicrobial properties of nitric oxide (NO) to develop NO-releasing biocompatible polymer interfaces for addressing bacterial infections. Using filament-based additive manufacturing and polycarbonateurethane-silicone (PCU-Sil) a range of films possessing unique porosities (Disk-60, Disk-40, solid, capped) were fabricated. The films were impregnated with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) using a solvent-swelling process. The Disk-60 porous films had the greatest amount of SNAP (19.59 wt%) as measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed an even distribution of SNAP throughout the polymer. The films exhibited structure-based tunable NO-release at physiological levels ranging from 7-14 days for solid and porous films, as measured by chemiluminescence. The antibacterial efficacy of the films was studied against Staphylococcus aureus using 24 h in vitro bacterial adhesion assay. The results demonstrated a >99% reduction of viable bacteria on the surface of all the NO-releasing films compared to unmodified PCU-Sil controls. The combination of 3D-printing technology with NO-releasing properties represents a promising technique to develop customized medical devices (such as 3D-scaffolds, catheters, etc.) with distinct NO-release levels that can provide antimicrobial properties and enhanced biocompatibility.
Chug, MK; Bachtiar, E; Narwold, N; Gall, K; Brisbois, EJ
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