The Gut/Lung Microbiome Axis in Obesity, Asthma, and Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review.
Mounting evidence suggests that obesity, parameters of metabolic syndrome, and asthma are significantly associated. Interestingly, these conditions are also associated with microbiome dysbiosis, notably in the airway microbiome for patients with asthma and in the gut microbiome for patients with obesity and/or metabolic syndrome. Considering that improvements in asthma control, lung function, and airway hyperresponsiveness are often reported after bariatric surgery, this review investigated the potential role of bacterial gut and airway microbiome changes after bariatric surgery in ameliorating asthma symptoms. Rapid and persistent gut microbiota alterations were reported following surgery, some of which can be sustained for years. The gut microbiome is thought to modulate airway cellular responses via short-chain fatty acids and inflammatory mediators, such that increased propionate and butyrate levels following surgery may aid in reducing asthma symptoms. In addition, increased prevalence of Akkermansia muciniphila after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy may confer protection against airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Metabolic syndrome parameters also improved following bariatric surgery, and whether weight-loss-independent metabolic changes affect airway processes and asthma pathobiology merits further research. Fulfilling knowledge gaps outlined in this review could facilitate the development of new therapeutic options for patients with obesity and asthma.
Kim, YJ; Womble, JT; Gunsch, CK; Ingram, JL
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