Hyperlipasemia in absence of acute pancreatitis is associated with elevated D-dimer and adverse outcomes in COVID 19 disease.
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affects multiple organs. Studies have reported mild elevations of lipase levels of unclear significance. Our study aims to determine the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and hyperlipasemia, and whether correlation with D-dimer levels explains the effect on outcomes. METHODS: Case-control study from two large tertiary care health systems, of patients with COVID-19 disease admitted between March 1 and May 1, 2020 who had lipase levels recorded. Data analyzed to study primary outcomes of mortality, length of stay (LOS) and intensive care utilization in hyperlipasemia patients, and correlation with D-dimer and outcomes. RESULTS: 992 out of 5597 COVID-19 patients had lipase levels, of which 429 (43%) had hyperlipasemia. 152 (15%) patients had a lipase > 3x ULN, with clinical pancreatitis in 2 patients. Hyperlipasemia had a higher mortality than normal lipase patients (32% vs. 23%, OR = 1.6,95%CI = 1.2-2.1, P = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, hyperlipasemia patients had significantly worse LOS (11vs.15 days, P = 0.01), ICU admission rates (44% vs. 66%,OR = 2.5,95%CI = 1.3-5.0,P = 0.008), ICU LOS (12vs.19 days,P = 0.01), mechanical ventilation rates (34% vs. 55%,OR = 2.4,95%CI = 1.3-4.8,P = 0.01), and durations of mechanical ventilation (14 vs. 21 days, P = 0.008). Hyperlipasemia patients were more likely to have a D-dimer value in the highest two quartiles, and had increased mortality (59% vs. 15%,OR = 7.2,95%CI = 4.5-11,P < 0.001) and LOS (10vs.7 days,P < 0.001) compared to those with normal lipase and lower D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: There is high prevalence of hyperlipasemia without clinical pancreatitis in COVID-19 disease. Hyperlipasemia was associated with higher mortality and ICU utilization, possibly explained by elevated D-dimer.
Ahmed, A; Fisher, JC; Pochapin, MB; Freedman, SD; Kothari, DJ; Shah, PC; Sheth, SG
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