ENTPD1 (CD39) Expression Inhibits UVR-Induced DNA Damage Repair through Purinergic Signaling and Is Associated with Metastasis in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
UVR and immunosuppression are major risk factors for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Regulatory T cells promote cSCC carcinogenesis, and in other solid tumors, infiltrating regulatory T cells and CD8+ T cells express ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1) (also known as CD39), an ectoenzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in converting extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to extracellular adenosine (ADO). We previously showed that extracellular purine nucleotides influence DNA damage repair. In this study, we investigate whether DNA damage repair is modulated through purinergic signaling in cSCC. We found increased ENTPD1 expression on T cells within cSCCs when compared with the expression on T cells from blood or nonlesional skin, and accordingly, concentrations of derivative extracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and ADO are increased in tumors compared with those in normal skin. Importantly, ENTPD1 expression is significantly higher in human cSCCs that metastasize than in those that are nonmetastatic. We also identify in a mouse model that ENTPD1 expression is induced by UVR in an IL-27-dependent manner. Finally, increased extracellular ADO is shown to downregulate the expression of NAP1L2, a nucleosome assembly protein we show to be important for DNA damage repair secondary to UVR. Together, these data suggest a role for ENTPD1 expression on skin-resident T cells to regulate DNA damage repair through purinergic signaling to promote skin carcinogenesis and metastasis.
Whitley, MJ; Suwanpradid, J; Lai, C; Jiang, SW; Cook, JL; Zelac, DE; Rudolph, R; Corcoran, DL; Degan, S; Spasojevic, I; Levinson, H; Erdmann, D; Reid, C; Zhang, JY; Robson, SC; Healy, E; Havran, WL; MacLeod, AS
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