SMARCA4 and Other SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable Family Genomic Alterations in NSCLC: Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes to Immune Checkpoint Inhibition.
INTRODUCTION: The SWItch/Sucrose Nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex acts as a regulatory component of transcription, and inactivating mutations (muts) within the complex are implicated in genomic instability, higher tumor mutational burden, and an aggressive cancer phenotype. Whether SMARCA4 and other SWI/SNF alterations are independent prognostic factors or associated with clinical outcomes to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in NSCLC remains unclear. METHODS: We collected clinicopathologic and genomic data from patients with NSCLC who underwent targeted next-generation sequencing at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Tumors were characterized on the basis of the presence or absence of muts across a set of six SWI/SNF genes (ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2, PBRM1, SMARCA4, and SMARCB1). RESULTS: Of 2689 patients with NSCLC, 20.6% (N = 555) had SWI/SNF genomic alterations. Compared with SWI/SNF wild-type (wt) NSCLC, patients with SWI/SNF-mutant NSCLCs had a lower prevalence of concurrent targetable driver muts (33.2% versus 22.2%; p < 0.001), a higher tumor mutational burden (median 8.5 versus 12.2 muts/megabase; p < 0.001), and a shorter median overall survival (mOS) from the time of advanced disease diagnosis (25.0 versus 19.3 mo, p = 0.01); the detrimental effect in OS seemed to be largely driven by SMARCA4 muts (mOS: 25.0 for SMARCA4 wt versus 15.6 mo for SMARCA4 mutant; p < 0.001). Among 532 patients who received ICIs, 25.5% (N = 136) harbored SWI/SNF muts. From the start of immunotherapy, there was no difference in objective response rate (ORR = 19.9% versus 25.0%, p = 0.2), median progression-free survival (mPFS = 3.0 versus 3.0 mo, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-1.18], p = 0.7), or mOS (13.1 versus 9.5 mo, HR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.64-1.02], p = 0.07) in SWI/SNF-wt versus SWI/SNF-mutant NSCLC, respectively. Nevertheless, among KRAS-mutant NSCLCs treated with ICIs (N = 176), a concurrent SWI/SNF mut (N = 39) conferred a numerically lower ORR (21.9% versus 12.8%, p = 0.2), a significantly shorter mPFS (4.1 versus 1.8 mo, HR = 0.57 [95% CI: 0.38-0.84], p = 0.005), and a significantly shorter mOS (15.5 versus 8.2 mo, HR = 0.56 [95% CI: 0.36-0.86], p = 0.008). The deleterious effect on immunotherapy outcomes in KRAS-mutant NSCLC was most pronounced in the SMARCA4-mutant subset (N = 17), with a lower ORR (22% versus 0%, p = 0.03), a significantly shorter mPFS (4.1 versus 1.4 mo, HR = 0.25 [95% CI: 0.14-0.42], p < 0.001), and a significantly shorter mOS (15.1 versus 3.0 mo, HR = 0.29 [95% CI: 0.17-0.50], p < 0.001) compared with SMARCA4-wt KRAS-mutant NSCLCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no associations between SWI/SNF mut status and immunotherapy efficacy in the overall NSCLC cohort, the presence of a SMARCA4 alteration may confer a worse outcome to immunotherapy among KRAS-mutant NSCLCs.
Alessi, JV; Ricciuti, B; Spurr, LF; Gupta, H; Li, YY; Glass, C; Nishino, M; Cherniack, AD; Lindsay, J; Sharma, B; Felt, KD; Rodig, SJ; Cheng, ML; Sholl, LM; Awad, MM
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