Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion.
Enteroviruses are a major source of human disease, particularly in neonates and young children where infections can range from acute, self-limited febrile illness to meningitis, endocarditis, hepatitis, and acute flaccid myelitis. The enterovirus genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enterovirus 71, and enterovirus D68. Enteroviruses primarily infect by the fecal-oral route and target the gastrointestinal epithelium early during their life cycles. In addition, spread via the respiratory tract is possible and some enteroviruses such as enterovirus D68 are preferentially spread via this route. Once internalized, enteroviruses are detected by intracellular proteins that recognize common viral features and trigger antiviral innate immune signaling. However, co-evolution of enteroviruses with humans has allowed them to develop strategies to evade detection or disrupt signaling. In this review, we will discuss how enteroviruses infect the gastrointestinal tract, the mechanisms by which cells detect enterovirus infections, and the strategies enteroviruses use to escape this detection.
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