Death waits for no man--does it wait for a virus? How enteroviruses induce and control cell death.
Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common human viral pathogens. They cause a variety of pathologies, including myocarditis and meningoencephalopathies, and have been linked to the onset of type I diabetes. These pathologies result from the death of cells in the myocardium, central nervous system, and pancreas, respectively. Understanding the role of EVs in inducing cell death is crucial to understanding the etiologies of these diverse pathologies. EVs both induce and delay host cell death, and their exquisite control of this balance is crucial for their success as human viral pathogens. Thus, EVs are tightly involved with cell death signaling pathways and interact with host cell signaling at multiple points. Here, we review the literature detailing the mechanisms of EV-induced cell death. We discuss the mechanisms by which EVs induce cell death, the signaling pathways involved in these pathways, and the strategies by which EVs antagonize cell death pathways. We also discuss the role of cell death in both the resulting pathology in the host and in the facilitation of viral spread.
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